Scientific philosophy of the Cracow Circle

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Zbigniew Wolak


The Cracow Circle was a group of four Polish philosophers and logicians (Salamucha, Bocheński, Drewnowski, Sobociński) connected with Lvov-Warsaw School. They tried to apply the modern logic to a Christian thought. This application first needed explication what the mathematical logic really is—not a science connected with the Aristotelian abstraction of the second degree but formal science unnecessary in a strict reasoning and defining. Then they showed how important was always exactness in Christian thought and wrote some papers in which the modern logic was used in different issues (maybe the most famous was Salamucha’s analysis of Thomas’ proof ex motu of the existence of God). Cracow Circle was also strongly interested in relations between science and religion, they tried to show and explore new ways to develop Christian, especially catholic, views of the world, philosophy and theology. Very interesting was Drewnowski’s philosophical program and its applications in various problems in philosophy, theology, sociology etc.

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Wolak, Z. (2005). Scientific philosophy of the Cracow Circle. Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne W Nauce), (36), 97–122. Retrieved from