The origin of probability

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Michał Heller


After briefly reviewing classical and quantum aspects of probability, basic concepts of the noncommutative calculus of probability (called also free calculus of probability) and its possible application to model the fundamental level of physics are presented. It is shown that the pair (M, *), where M is a (noncommutative) von Neumann algebra, and a state on it, is both a dynamical object and a probabilistic object. In this way, dynamics and probability can be unified in noncommutative geometry. Some philosophical consequences of such an approach are indicated.

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Heller, M. (2006). The origin of probability. Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne W Nauce), (38), 61–75. Retrieved from