Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn <p><em>Philosophical Problems in Science</em> (Polish: <em>Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce</em>, abbrev. ZFN) is the oldest Polish journal dedicated to the philosophy in science.</p> <p>ZFN covers a wide range of topics of general interest to those working on philosophical problems involved in and intertwined with modern science (see <a title="Focus and Scope" href="/index.php/zfn/about#focusAndScope" rel="noopener">Focus and Scope</a>).</p> <p>ZFN has originated from a long tradition of Krakow philosophy of nature dating back to the second half of the nineteenth century (see <a title="Journal History" href="/index.php/zfn/about#history" rel="noopener">Journal History</a>). The journal policy is to continue the tradition of mutual discussion between philosophers and scientists.</p> Copernicus Center Press en-US Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) 0867-8286 40 years of ZFN – the flexibility of youth and the experience of age https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/483 <p>Various anniversaries encourage historical reflection. Although 40<sup>th</sup> anniversary is not a common reason for excessive celebration, in the case of a scientific journal, however, it is already long enough that it deserves a brief moment of thought.</p> Michał Heller Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 9 11 Topology and models of ZFC at early Universe https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/464 <p>Recently the cosmological evolution of the universe has been considered where 3-dimensional spatial topology undergone drastic changes. The process can explain, among others, the observed smallness of the neutrino masses and the speed of inflation. However, the entire evolution is perfectly smooth from 4-dimensional point of view. Thus the <em>raison d’être</em> for such topology changes is the existence of certain non-standard 4-smoothness on R<sup>4</sup> already at very early stages of the universe. We show that the existence of such smoothness can be understood as a byproduct of the quantumness of the origins of the universe. Our analysis is based on certain formal aspects of the quantum mechanical lattice of projections of infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces where formalization reaches the level of models of axiomatic set theory.</p> Jerzy Król Torsten Asselmeyer-Maluga Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 15 33 Points. Lack thereof https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/471 <p>I will discuss some aspects of the concept of “point” in quantum gravity, using mainly the tool of noncommutative geometry. I will argue that at Planck’s distances the very concept of point may lose its meaning. I will then show how, using the spectral action and a high momenta expansion, the connections between points, as probed by boson propagators, vanish. This discussion follows closely (Kurkov, Lizzi and Vassilevich, 2014).</p> Fedele Lizzi Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 35 60 Independent quantum systems and the associativity of the product of quantum observables https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/465 <p>We start from the assumption that the real valued observables of a quantum system form a Jordan algebra which is equipped with a compatible Lie product characterizing infinitesimal symmetries, and ask whether two such systems can be considered as independent subsystems of a larger system. We show that this is possible if and only if the associator of the Jordan product is a fixed multiple of the associator of the Lie product. In this case it is known that the two products can be combined to an associative product in the Jordan algebra or its complexification, depending on the sign of the multiple.</p> Klaus Fredenhagen Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 61 72 Ehrenfest’s Theorem revisited https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/463 <p>Historically, Ehrenfest’s theorem (1927) is the first one which shows that classical physics can emerge from quantum physics as a kind of approximation. We recall the theorem in its original form, and we highlight its generalizations to the relativistic Dirac particle and to a particle with spin and izospin. We argue that apparent classicality of the macroscopic world can probably be explained within the framework of standard quantum mechanics.</p> Henryk Stanisław Arodź Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 73 94 The theory of ideas and Plato’s philosophy of mathematics https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/468 <p>In this article I analyze the issue of many levels of reality that are studied by natural sciences. Particularly interesting is the level of mathematics and the question of the relationship between mathematics and the structure of the real world. The mathematical nature of the world has been considered since ancient times and is the subject of ongoing research for philosophers of science to this day. One of the viewpoints in this field is mathematical Platonism.</p> <p>In contemporary philosophy it is widely accepted that according to Plato mathematics is the domain of ideal beings (ideas) that are eternal and unalterable and exist independently from the subject’s beliefs and decisions. Two issues seem to be important here. The first issue concerns the question: was Plato really a proponent of present-day mathematical Platonism? The second one is of greater importance: how mathematics influences our understanding of the nature of the world on its many ontological levels?</p> <p>In the article I consider three issues: the Platonic theory of “two worlds”, the method of building a mathematical structure, and the ontology of mathematics.</p> Bogdan Dembiński Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 95 108 Does the quantum mechanical wave function exist? https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/437 <p>I address the question whether the wave function in quantum theory exists as a real (ontic) quantity or not. For this purpose, I discuss the essentials of the quantum formalism and emphasize the central role of the superposition principle. I then explain the measurement problem and discuss the process of decoherence. Finally, I address the special features that the quantization of gravity brings into the game. From all of this I conclude that the wave function really exists, that is, it is a real (ontic) feature of Nature.</p> Claus Kiefer Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 111 128 Where are Sunspots? The Practical Method of Galileo as an example of Mental Model https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/461 <p>After the publication of Sidereus Nuncius, in the controversy with Ch. Scheiner, Galileo developed several arguments on behalf of the hypothesis that sunspots are contiguous to the surface of the Sun, and presented them in his <em>Istoria e dimostrazioni intorno alle macchie solari e loro accidenti</em> (Rome 1613). One of them, named by Galileo a Practical Method, advocates very clearly the correctness of the hypothesis. In the paper the method in question is briefly described. It is argued that the Practical Method is not a thought experiment, but rather a mental model proposed precisely in order to solve the problem of sunspots’ location.</p> Tadeusz Sierotowicz Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 129 141 Science as a rational doxa. J. Życiński’s understanding of science and philosophy of science – beyond internalism and externalism https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/466 <p>Philosophical interests of Joseph Życiński (1948-2011) in the domain of the philosophy of science were focused on the debate concerning the nature of science and philosophy of science that followed the Einstein-Planck revolution in science. The unexpected discovery of the philosophical, extra-scientific presuppositions in science, as well as of the extra-rational factors determining the way these presuppositions are accepted in science were to be explained within the meta-scientific framework. It is the aim of this paper to present ˙ Życiński’s diagnosis of this post-revolutionary situation in the philosophy of science as well as his critique of the metascientific answers to this challenge. The reasons will be given why all those answers are put under two dichotomous rubrics of <em>internalism</em> and <em>externalism</em>. It will be also explained how Życiński intends to supersede this false in his opinion opposition with a new concept of the doxatic rationality. However, the details of the metascientific proposal of Życiński will be given only in the subsequent paper. In order to perform the aim of the paper the metatheoretic tools set out by Popper (1979) will be used.</p> Zbigniew Liana Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 147 199 How many kingdoms of life? Eukaryotic phylogeny and philosophy of systematics https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/443 <p>According to contemporary understanding of the universal tree of life, the traditionally recognized kingdoms of eukaryotic organisms—Protista, Fungi, Animalia and Plantae—are irregularly interspersed in a vast phylogenetic tree. There are numerous groups that in any Linnaean classification advised by phylogenetic relationships (i.e. a Hennigian system) would form sister groups to those kingdoms, therefore requiring us to admit them the same rank. In practice, this would lead to the creation of ca. 25-30 new kingdoms that would now be listed among animals and plants as “major types of life”. This poses problems of an aesthetic and educational nature. There are, broadly speaking, two ways to deal with that issue: a) ignore the aesthetic and educational arguments and propose classification systems that are fully consistent with the Hennigian principles of phylogenetic classification, i.e. are only composed of monophyletic taxa; b) ignore Hennigian principles and bunch small, relatively uncharacteristic groups into paraphyletic taxa, creating systems that are more convenient. In the paper, I present the debate and analyze the pros and cons of both options, briefly commenting on the deeper, third resolution, which would be to abandon classification systems entirely. Recent advances in eukaryotic classification and phylogeny are commented in the light of the philosophical question of the purpose and design principles of biological classification systems.</p> Lukasz Lamza Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 203 227 How is philosophy in science possible? https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/482 <p>The Michael Heller’s article entitled “How is <em>philosophy in science</em> possible?” was originally published in Polish in 1986 (see Heller, 1986) and then translated into English by Bartosz Brożek and Aeddan Shaw and published in 2011 in the collection of essays entitled <em>Philosophy in Science. Methods and Applications</em> (Heller, 2011). This seminal paper has founded further growth of the ‘philosophy in science’ and become the reference point in the methodological discussions, especially in Poland. On the 40th anniversary of Philosophical Problems in Science we wanted to make this paper freely available to the international public by reprinting its English version. In this issue it is followed by two additional articles-commentaries (by Paweł Polak and Kamil Trombik).</p> Michał Heller Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 231 249 Philosophy in science: A name with a long intellectual tradition https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/472 <p>This paper presents Michael Heller’s notion of “philosophy in science” and re-introduces Michael Heller’s classical text that first presented this concept of philosophy entitled <em>How is “philosophy in science” possible?</em>. The paper discusses the historical context of Heller’s idea as it emerged from the discussions and works of the Krakow philosophical scene and discusses the basic tenants of this philosophy, its analytic character, the role of intellectual tradition in the development of this philosophy, and the critical role played by an interdisciplinary dialogue between philosophy, science, and theology. Despite the idea of philosophy in science having emerged about 40 years ago, this concept still inspires and fuels innovative research. The notion of “philosophy in science” lies at the foundations of the philosophy published in two journals: <em>Philosophical Problems in Science</em> (<em>Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce</em>) and <em>Philosophy in Science</em>.</p> Paweł Jan Polak Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 251 270 The origin and development of the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies. A historical outline by 1993 https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/474 <p>The paper concerns the origin and early stage of development of the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies at the Pontifical Academy of Theology in Kraków. Center for Interdisciplinary Studies was founded by Michał Heller and Józef Życiński in the late 1970s. It was an informal institution which focused on conducting scientific activity in the area of philosophy of nature, relationship between mathematical &amp; natural sciences and philosophy, history of science, as well as relationships between science and religion. In this paper I would like to present how this institution developed, I will discuss various forms of its activity and discuss—very generally—what kind of philosophy was promoted by M. Heller, J. Życiński as well as their pupils and close associates. An important part of the paper will also concern the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies as a unique institution, which has developed—in difficult historical period in Poland—philosophical research in the spirit of freedom and respect for the new achievements of science, and also promoted interdisciplinary dialogue between scientists and philosophers.</p> Kamil Piotr Trombik Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 271 295 Leaving 'Sarmatian salt-mines' or theology of science in action https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/469 <p>Recenzja książki: Michał Heller, <em>Ważniejsze niż Wszechświat</em>, Copernicus Center Press, Kraków 2018, ss. 128.</p> Paweł Jan Polak Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 299 304 Science in the eyes of erudite https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/487 <p>Book review: Adam Adamandy Kochański, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, <em>Korespondencja Adama Adamandego Kochańskiego i Gottfrieda Wilhelma Leibniza z lat 1670-1698</em>, D. Sieńko (tłum.), wyd. Muzeum Pałacu Króla Jana III w Wilanowie, Warszawa 2019, ss. 256.</p> Paweł Jan Polak Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 305 309 Towards renovated Newton's image https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/484 <p>Book review: Niccolò Guicciardini, Isaac Newton and Natural Philosophy, Reaktion Books, London 2018, ss. 268.</p> Jacek Rodzeń Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 310 316 Can one serve two masters? https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/459 <p>Book review: Dominique Lambert, <em>Ryzykowne spotkanie teologii z nauką</em>, przeł. P. Korycińska, Copernicus Center Press, Kraków 2018, ss. 268.</p> Kamil Piotr Trombik Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 317 322 Parallel worlds of faith and science in the Russian intellectual milieu https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/447 <p>Book review: Teresa Obolevitch, <em>Faith and Science in Russian Religious Thought</em>, Oxford University Press, Oxford-New York 2019, pp.240.</p> Nataliya Petreshak Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 323 325 For the sake of logical culture in philosophical and theological research https://zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/486 <p>Book review: Polska filozofia chrześcijańska XX wieku. Stanisław Kamiński, Kazimierz Marek Wolsza [Polish Christian Philosophy: Stanisław Kamiński and Kazimierz Marek Wolsza] (red.). Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Ignatianum w Krakowie, 2019, ss. 232.</p> Krzysztof Śleziński Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 66 326 330