Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) <p><em>Philosophical Problems in Science</em> (Polish: <em>Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce</em>, abbrev. ZFN) is the oldest Polish journal dedicated to the philosophy in science.</p> <p>ZFN covers a wide range of topics of general interest to those working on philosophical problems involved in and intertwined with modern science (see <a title="Focus and Scope" href="/index.php/zfn/about#focusAndScope" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Focus and Scope</a>).</p> <p>ZFN has originated from a long tradition of Krakow philosophy of nature dating back to the second half of the nineteenth century (see <a title="Journal History" href="/index.php/zfn/about#history" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal History</a>). The journal policy is to continue the tradition of mutual discussion between philosophers and scientists.</p> Copernicus Center Press en-US Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) 0867-8286 Category theory and some of its logical aspects <p>This article is intended for philosophers and logicians as a short partial introduction to category theory (CT) and its peculiar connection with logic. First, we consider CT itself. We give a brief insight into its history, introduce some basic definitions and present examples. In the second part, we focus on categorical topos semantics for propositional logic. We give some properties of logic in toposes, which, in general, is an intuitionistic logic. We next present two families of toposes whose tautologies are identical with those of classical propositional logic. The relatively extensive bibliography is given in order to support further studies.</p> Mariusz Stopa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 64 7 58 Philosophy of drama as a philosophical research tradition <p>This paper presents an attempt to describe Józef Tischner’s philosophy of drama from the point of view of Larry Laudan’s philosophy of science. That is achieved with the help of the concept of Philosophical Research Traditions developed in the paper. A~certain conceptual problem of Tischner’s philosophy, and some future research topics are also presented.</p> Tadeusz Sierotowicz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 64 59 92 Joint detection of gravitational waves from binary black hole and binary neutron star mergers by LIGO and Virgo <p class="Textbody"><span lang="EN-US">Advanced Virgo detector joined advanced LIGO twin detectors on 1st August 2017 in the quest to look for the gravitational waves. The global network of three detectors was operational for 25 days until the LIGO shut down on 25th August 2017. Two gravitational wave events were registered during this period. One of them was the binary black hole merger dubbed as GW170814 and other one is binary neutron star merger referred to as GW170817. Electromagnetic counterpart associated with binary neutron star merger was promptly identified which marks the beginning of multi-messenger astronomy. This article describes these events emphasizing on the crucial role played by the Virgo and focusing on some methodological issues.</span></p> Andrzej Królak Mandar Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 64 95 115 Structure of the digital scientific revolution <p class="Textbody"><span lang="EN-US">Nowadays, computers are in common use, both in experimental and theoretical research. It is worth considering if the implementation of a new, universal research tool has significantly changed the science of the end of 20th century. The crucial question which I will try to answer is if computers have revolutionized the scientific research. In order to find the answer, I will describe modern digitally aided science, taking into consideration the research conducted in the greatest elementary physics laboratory. Subsequently, I will refer to the classic concept of scientific revolution proposed by Thomas S. Kuhn. Finally, I will answer the question related to digital revolution in science.</span></p> Sławomir Grzegorz Leciejewski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 64 117 136 Biopsychological foundations of geometric cognition <p class="Textbody"><span lang="EN-US">In this review-paper, I focus on biopsychological foundations of geometric cognition. Starting from the Kant’s views on mathematics, I attempt to show that contemporary cognitive scientists, alike the famous philosopher, recognize mutual relationships of visuospatial processing and geometric cognition. What I defend is a claim that Tinbergen’s explanatory questions are the most fruitful tool for explaining our “hardwired,” and thus shared with other animals, Euclidean intuitions, which manifest themselves in spatial navigation and shape recognition. I claim, however, that these “hardwired intuitions” cannot capture full-blooded Euclidean geometry, which demands practice with cultural artifacts in various time-scales.</span></p> Mateusz Hohol ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 64 137 165 Catholic theology in confrontation with neurosciences: a starting point for dialogue <p class="Textbody"><span lang="EN-US">I ask the following question: “How should theology develop in order to avoid conflicts with neurosciences?” I believe that the answer to this question is a turn towards the monistic structure of human nature. It seems that insisting on the concept of a human being as composed of two realities – the body and the soul – makes it difficult, if not impossible, to enter into a constructive dialogue with neuroscientists who point to a clear connection between consciousness and biological processes.</span></p> Damian Wąsek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 64 167 181 Philosophy of cosmology - an open project <p class="Textbody"><span lang="EN-US">Book review: K. Chamcham, J. Silk, J.D. Barrow, S. Saunders (eds.), The Philosophy of Cosmology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2017, pp. XII + 514.</span></p> Michał Heller ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 64 185 193 Bernhard Bolzano: the first (historically) mathematical approach to the concept of continuum <p>Book review: Lukas Benedikt Kraus, <em>Der Begriff des Kontinuums bei Bernard Bolzano</em>, Beiträge zur Bolzano-Forschung, vol. 25, Academia Verlag, Sankt Augustin 2014, pp. 112.</p> Jerzy Dadaczyński ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 64 195 199 Long-distance thinking <p>Book review:&nbsp;<em>Oblicza filozofii w nauce</em>, P. Polak, J. Mączka, W.P. Grygiel (eds.), Copernicus Center Press, Kraków 2017, pp. 386.</p> Kamil Piotr Trombik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 64 201 207 The Daniel Dennett’s New Mind: Darwin, Turing but no Bach <p>Book review: Daniel C. Dennett, <em>From Bacteria to Bach and Back</em>. The evolution of mind, Penguin Random House, UK 2017, pp. 467.</p> Roman Krzanowski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 64 209 213